Like in Rwanda, there is a public health insurance system in France, Belgium and Switzerland for people who contribute to an insurance scheme. Private health insurance is often financed by employers of large companies, which pays for the rest of the fees that are not covered by the public system. For example, it would refund the charges of a private room in the case of hospitalisation. In France, consultations with health professionals are subsidised by social security; generally, the medical fees are paid for upfront and then refunded after. To be reimbursed, you must present your insurance card (called the "carte vitale") issued by the social security system. Prescribed medicine is also reimbursed. Traditional medicine known as alternative or unconventional medicine is not covered.
In France, the CMU (universal health coverage) allows people who are not salaried employees to have access to health insurance.
In general, people pay for a complementary health insurance which gives them further coverage on the fees that are not paid for by Social Security. There are many chemist's shops and in the richest regions, there are several products sold that don't require a prescription: vitamins, pain medication, cosmetic products, sunblock, toothpaste...
In Canada, the health system is public and free for all Canadian citizens or for those who have a "landed immigrant" status. However, foreign students and visitors are required to buy private insurance in order to have health coverage. It is more than recommended to have health insurance when travelling to Canada: the doctor's bill or hospital bill is very, very expensive!!!